Week 4: Social Impacts

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Music has been impacted by the internet immensely. Worries about copyright and illegally downloaded music devastated the music industries sales. These crimes brought forth awareness of RIAA and there cause to end music theft and piracy. Impacts like the virtual choir by Eric Whitacre demonstrates how some people are embracing the internet and realize it capabilities for shaping the music of the future. The internet has causes positive as well as negative impacts upon the Music Industry.

Effects of Napster

  • San Mateo, California (1999)
  • The digital music revolution started with Napster –using peer-to-peer file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing audio files typically music and encoded in MP3 format. The file-sharing service allowed digital music online to be downloaded without paying impacting the music industry financially and brought up questions of copyright. Napster's facilitation of transfer of copyrighted material raised awareness of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) filed a lawsuit against the popular service.
  • Napster created a revolution of free, easily accessible stolen digital music impacting the sales in the music industry. Other websites with the same idea included Limewire and Kazaa. The RIAA is said to be winning the battles against companies but in entirety is losing the war because so many people use websites like these to download music illegally. So in all Napster not only impacted the music industry, but in a way impacted our culture and morals of what is okay and not okay.


Sources: RIAA vs The People- Five Years Later Wikipedia Page ABC News Article Time line of file sharing


  • San Bruno, California headquarters (2005)
  • YouTube, a video sharing website, allows for both pros and cons for the music industry.
  • A good impact is that YouTube provides a way for new artists to upload videos of performance to get their personal material out to the public. However, when uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.[206] Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. Furthermore, there are also many websites, for example youtube-mp3.org, that allow the user to download free music off of youtube. Here are some surprising statistics demonstrating the phenomenal growth of this company. They show just how powerful YouTube is and the impact it is and will continue to create around the world.


Sources: Source Source

iTunes and Digital Distribution of Music

  • Macworld San Francisco (2001)
  • iTunes is a media player, media library, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Incorporated. It is used to play, download, and organize digital audio and video on personal computers with use of iPad, iPod, or iPhone. There are other Mp3 devices as well as the iPod also impacted the music industry as well.
  • There was no longer a need for CD's or buying whole albums, instead the consumer could buy just one song off of an album for 99 cents. In this way iTunes benefited the music industry. It is a lot easier to buy songs when they are only 99 cents. The invention of iTunes cut some of the illegal downloading because music was much more affordable. However, iTunes still makes it easy for illegal songs to be downloaded using iTunes.


The Impact of iTunes Source http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRnVvnsao1I


  • Headquartes in Washington DC -Established in 1952
  • The RIAA, or the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States.

The RIAA says its current mission includes the following:

  • 1. to protect intellectual property rights and the First Amendment rights of artists;
  • 2. to perform research about the music industry;
  • 3. to monitor and review relevant laws, regulations and policies.
  • RIAA describes that music theft is a real, ongoing and evolving challenge. Both the volume of music acquired illegally without paying for it and the resulting drop in revenues are staggering. Digital sales, while on the rise, are not making up the difference. RIAA impacted digital downloading by establishing awareness of music piracy and theft, even though illegal downloading is still occurring today. Here are some notable RIAA lawsuits against piracyand here is an info graphic explaining the penalties of "Piracy"


Source RIAA Website

Pirate Bay

  • Sweden (2003)
  • The Pirate Bay is a website using the BitTorrent protocol that provideslinks to allow peer-to-peer file sharing. It is the most visited torrent directory on the Internet. The Pirate Bay is free for personal use, and it claims to set itself apart by ensuring content is not only free but also uncensored.
  • The impact of Pirate Bay is that that similar to napster, It provides illegal free downloads of music and videos impacting the music industry financially. People will not buy a song or an album if they can download it for free and not get caught. So just like Napster, the illegal digital music downloads could also be impacting human morality as well as the music industry.
  • Pirate bay is supported by several websites including Torrent Freak As seen in this video, the Pirate Bay is easy to use and there were a lot of how o videos on youtube.



How it Works Article

Major Lawsuits

  • Headquarters- Washington DC
  • RIAA v. The People- 2003 the industry sued 261 Americans for illegally downloading file-shared music.
  • RIAA Lawsuit Against LimeWire
  • RIAA Lawsuit against Napster 2000
  • RIAA v. Jammie Thomas-Rasset


Lawsuit Information RIAA vs Limewire-RIAA Website

Collaborative Online Choir

  • Reno, Nevada (His birthplace)
  • Eric Whitacre creates an online choir using people from all over the world. They make a video of them singing a specific piece and then people's videos are chosen and pieced together to create a giant online choir. Whitacre inventively embraced the future and incorporated it into choir music.
  • This idea impacts the notion of how music is created and it impacts the future of music and choir positively. Other examples of online music is remixing songs and piecing together different sounds to create something new. Youtube examples are below.


Eric Whitacre Virtual Choir Website Wikipedia Source


The internet has had a massive effect on business. E-Commerce giant such as Amazon has essentially taken away the middle man of shopping. It allows people to shop from their computers or smartphones and not having to have to go through a retailer. Amazon transformed the way people shop. It has made it cheaper and much more convenient. The company has had a massive effect on many different industries such as publishing, bookstores, retail, music, and many others. With the rise of digital e-readers such a kindle, stores such as Borders lost a lot of business and were forced into bankruptcy. Kindle has transformed reading, and allows people to browse for books and be able to get them instantly from their reading device. Netflix has transformed the way people watch tv.


Amazon was founded by Jeff Bezos in Washington, Seattle in 1994. It is the biggest online retailer of almost anything, from clothes, electronics,household goods, food, toys, jewelry, furniture, software, movies and much more. It has changed the way people shop. Now people are able to buy virtually anything they want right from the comfort of their homes or strait from their smartphones. Online selling allows consumers to be able to buy products directly instead of going through a retailer. They are also able to sell their own products to others through Amazon. Amazons prime service allows their customers to buy items at discount prices with free two day shipping, and also gives them a free online movie streaming service like netflix. Their prime service creates a loyalty with their customers and keeps them buying everything, even items such as toothpaste straight from Amazon. Amazon'slargest warehouse is located in Phoenix, Arizona. The unstoppable growth and popularity of Amazon has largely impacted many businesses and industries. That impact is called the "Amazon Effect." amazon2.jpg


Amazon's Aggressive Growth Strategy --- Sources: Is Amazon Bad for Books?

Google Adsense

location:1600 Amphitheatre Pkwy, Mountain View, CA 94043 Google Adsense a very easy and simple way for bloggers and website owners to make money on the internet. It is a cost per click advertising program which allows people to display targeted Google ads on their websites.

Google, being the number one search engine in the world, sells ad space. Companies purchase that ad space through an interface called Adwords in order to get more traffic to their websites. Adwords allows targeted ads to show up on Google results pages. That is why when you search for something like hiking gear you see adds from major online retailers that sell hiking gear. Adsense on the other hand enables web publishers to put the Google Adwords ads to their individual websites. Google has a web bot built into Adsense that searches every website on the internet and figures out what ads go with what websites. That is why when you go to someones blog, you'll see advertisements similar to that of the actual blog topic. It searches for headlines, words, and figures out if the content is correct. Companies don't want their ads to pop up in the wrong websites because they won't be making any money that way. When a company pays for ads, they choose how much they want to pay for each click. When a surfer clicks on that add, Google distributes that money half to google and half to the publisher of the website.

2_scam.jpg --- How Google Adsense Works


location: 100 Winchester Circle; Los Gatos, California 95032 Netflix was established in 1997. It is a company that started out with a service offering DVD and Blu-ray rentals through mail and on-demand video streaming online at a very low monthly price. Netflix has since dropped their rentals service and capitalized on their online movie/ tv show streaming service. With the quick rise of the smartphone and tablet industry, cannibalization was a very smart move for Netflix. Their tremendous success lead to the demise of many businesses such as Blockbuster, and Hollywood Video.

Netflix has drastically impacted the way people watch tv. It allows them to watch their shows on their schedule, and not be confined to network schedules. People are losing their need for network television because Netflix allows people to watch what they want, when they want, as much of it as they want, and wherever they want with Netflix mobile apps. Netflix has even started producing its own original content.

Netflix-members.jpg http://www.statista.com/chart/1620/top-10-traffic-hogs/ --- Sources: Wikipedia


location: 100 Phoenix Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48113 Borders was a major bookstore that closed down. The company made a lot of wrong decisions that led to its destruction. The rise of the digital book, and e-readers such as ipad, kindle, and the nook led to the bankruptcy and the closing of Borders. Borders outsourced its online sales to Amazon, and as a result hurt its own brand, and helped build the online giant, Amazon.com. Unlike its main competitor Barnes and Nobles, Borders chose to invest heavily in DVD's and music CD's, when they should have been investing into e-readers. Barnes and Noble invested heavily its digital sector and came out with its own e-reader called the nook. Ultimately, Borders grew too large, invested in the wrong things, and came in way too late to the internet game. Borders officially closed on September 27, 2011.

871171504.jpg Sources: Why Borders went out of business



Corporate Headquarters located at: 2211 North First Street, San Jose, California 95131

Pay Pal was founded in December 1998, it is one of the safest ways to pay for things on the internet without exchanging any financial information. The rise of the internet caused everyone to be very cautious with regard to sharing their financial information over the internet. Paypal has changed the face of internet transactions to a simple, secure paypal button. It is also one of the safest ways to send and receive money domestically and internationally over the internet. The company has built a very trusted brand, gaining the notice of an internet auction giant called Ebay, which purchased Paypal in 2002 for $1.5 billion.



location: 71 Columbia St Suite 300 Seattle, WA USA 98104 In April of 2011 Bitcoin sold for $0.75. By January, 2014, it had skyrocketed to over a $1000. Bitcoin is a peer to peer, digital cryptocurrency without a central bank or authority. Decentraized, meaning that a network of users control and verify every transaction. It is very secure because each bitcoin has a detailed history of every transaction, therefore is extremely difficult to make a fake bitcoin. Every transaction is recorded into a public ledger, which is called a Block Chain. Bitcoin miners verify that transaction and get new bitcoins for their work. Bitcoin is internet money that is for the people and by the people. Many of the businesses such as Dish network now accept bitcoin. If the trend continues to grow, Bitcoin may very well become the currency of the future.

source Click Here to see the global distribution of bitcoin accepting businesses.


Fan Culture (Anime)


  • Location: New York, NY

The popular, imageboard 4chan opened to the public on October 1, 2003. At it's foundation, it was mainly used as a place for discussion and images related to anime and manga. Today, it's divided into six different categories: Japanese culture, Interests, Creative, Adult (18+), Other, and Misc (18+). Anime and manga still make up a large portion of the website's discussion, with boards like /a/ - Anime, /m/ - Mecha, /jp/ - Otaku Culture, etc. 4chan is consider the English counterpart to the Japanese imageboard known as Futanba Channel, or 2chan. The website currently has an Alexa ranking of 482 in the United States and 1,052 worldwide based on a combination of its page views and visitors.

While 4chan started as an anime imageboard, it has had a significant impact on the general internet culture. Memes, such as lolcats, Pedobear, Rickrolling, Anonymous, and more originated on the site. Additionally 4chan serves as the home for several online communities, from those surrounding mainstream interests, such as television and movies, to more niche interests, like papercraft and mecha. 4chan has long been seen as the center of internet culture, but in the last couple of years, more mainstream websites like Reddit have begun lessening 4chan's impact. Many people only know of 4chan as a place on the internet they should avoid.

Media: [1]

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  • Location: United States

Because anime is produce in Japan for Japan, audiences that speak a language other than Japanese either have to make due with dubs in their language, or utilize subtitles. However, dubs may take years to be released, and many fans reject them for their often amateurish voice work. Official subtitles were once released alongside dubs (things have changed with streaming), so they too took a long time to be released. Additionally, many series never receive an official release outside of Japan. Instead of waiting, anime fans have put out subtitled releases of their own. In the late 80s and 90s, these releases were often shared via physical means, by passing around subtitled VHS tapes, but with the advent of the internet, these releases are now readily available as torrents, direct downloads, and streams.

The accessibility of fansubs means that many fans never purchase official anime releases. Due to this, the traditional model of only releasing anime via DVD/BD have gave way to a new model that includes streaming. Additionally, many fansubbers have graduated to working for streaming services, such as Cruncyroll, subtitling series for them instead of for free distribution via torrents.

Media: [2]

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  • Location: San Francisco, CA (Headquarters of BitTorrent)

Torrent sites, such as nyaa.eu and bakabt.me play a huge role in the anime community. In many cases, torrenting is the only option fans have to view a series, movie, or OVA that has not been released officially in their native language.

Torrenting has made downloading and viewing anime much easier than it was in the past. Before the advent of torrenting, fans often passed around subbed VHS copies of different episodes or movies, or they might share files over USENET or some other file sharing method. But just like Napster for music, the torrenting of anime has greatly affected laws. Just recently, Japan has enacted an anti-piracy law that could possibly land torrenters in prison for as many as 2 years. The popularity of torrenting may also be the reason many anime publishers have began hosting anime on streaming services, like Crunchyroll. The hope is that if fans aren't going to buy the DVD/BD releases, they will view the anime on the streaming service instead of torrenting it.

Media: [3]

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  • Location: San Francisco, California, USA

In the past few years, streaming services, such as Crunchyroll, Netflix, and Hulu have begun offering official, legal alternatives to fansubs. Many series that now air in Japan air simultaneously, with subtitles, on many of these streaming services. Some fans still refuse to stream, believing it to be an inferior experience to torrenting.

In many ways, streaming services have made anime more accessible to a wider audience. No longer do fans have to use legally questionable methods, i.e. torrents, to view their favorite shows. Additionally, the existence of simulcast releases, where anime is subbed and released simultaneously as it airs in Japan, has lessened the need for fansubbers. Many groups now simply rip the subs from streaming sites like Crunchyroll, and instead offer the option for superior video quality and encoding via torrents.

Media: [4]

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Location: Japan

William Gibson’s novel, Neuromancer had a noticeable effect on Japanese culture in the 1980s and 90s. Consequently, there many anime from those decades that have cyberpunk elements. Perhaps the most well known of these is Akira, a 1988 film directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, the author and artist of the comic it was based on.

Akira and other cyberpunk anime were instrumental in popularizing the medium in the West. Anime had existed in the West before their release, however, their was little distinction from them, series like Astro Boy, Speed Racer, Robotech, Voltron, etc., and typical Saturday morning cartoons. What Akira and others like it did, was crave a niche for the adult anime market in the West.

Sources/Further Reading:


  • Location: San Mateo, California
  • YouTube, where many AMVs are hosted, is founded on February 14, 2005.

AMVs, or Anime Music Videos are fan-made videos that mix clips of anime with popular music. Before the internet, it wasn't uncommon for fans to record these on VHS and share them at conventions. AMVs have since blown up on YouTube and other video sharing sites.

Both online and offline communities have sprouted surrounding the creation and viewing of AMVs. Anime conventions frequently include AMV contests and viewing panels. Due to their use of copyrighted content, they have also come with interesting legal issues. It's not uncommon for users to have their AMVs removed from YouTube due to copyright infringements.

Cowboy Bebop - ("God's Gonna Cut You Down" Song By Johnny Cash) AMV

Sources/Further Reading:


  • Location: Los Angeles, CA
  • deviantART founded on August 7, 2000

Cosplay, short for "costume play" is a popular hobby in the anime community. It involves fans dressing up as and attending conventions. Sites like Cosplay.com and deviantART have fostered communities centered around its craft.

Like AMVs, a large offline and online community has risen around cosplay. Cosplay is a key aspect of conventions, and not just anime convention. One is likely to find cosplay at almost any enthusiast convention, from Star Trek conventions to Comic-Con.

Space Adventure Cobra cosplay


Sources/Further Reading:


Cyber Bullying

Cyber bullying is when a child, or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, or targeted by another child, or teen using the Internet, mobile phones, or other interactive digital media. Cyber bullying has to have a minor involved on both sides, or at least have been instigated by a minor against another minor. If adults come into the picture, cyber bullying then becomes known as cyber stalking or harassment. Children have killed each other and committed suicide after having been involved in a cyber bullying incident. Cyber bullying usually is not a one time communication, unless it involves a death threat or a credible threat of serious bodily harm. There are two types of cyber bullying, direct attacks (messages sent to your kids) and cyber bullying by proxy (using others to help cyber bully the victim).

Media: keep-calm-and-stop-cyber-bullying-110.png

Suicide of Megan Meier

  • Location: Dardenne Prairie, Missouri
  • What It Is: Cyber Bullying
  • Negative Impact: Cyber Bullying caused a 13 year old girl to commit suicide. Megan Meier killed herself to escape from the ridicule of other children. This incident caused the world to take notice of the cyber bully problem that has spiked in recent years.

Media: MeganMeierFoundation.jpg

Suicide of Amanda Todd

  • Location: Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada
  • What Is It: Cyber Bullying
  • Negative Impact: Cyber bullying claims another life, this time a 15 year old girl. She actually posted a video that shows her using flash cards to describer her situation. the video went viral after her death.


Suicide of Tyler Clementi

  • Location: Fort Lee, New Jersey
  • What Is It: Cyber Bullying
  • Negative Impact: Another suicide due to cyberbullying, 18 year old Tyler Clementi killed himself after being recorded kissing another man.
  • Media: Tyler_Clementi.jpg

Further Reading: Information on Cyber Bullying More Information Cyber Bullying Wiki Link Government's Web Site Suicide of Megan Meier

Declining Intelligence?

Is Google making us dumber? That is the question many are asking themselves. Since the invention of computers, however, people have been trying to say that they are making us dumber. That is highly debatable because computers and the internet gives us more access to information. A scientific study has found that Google is hampering our ability to recall information. Led by Betsy Sparrow at Columbia University, the study also found that Google improves certain kinds of memory. According to Science, we're not losing our ability to remember things, but rather, the internet is changing how we remember things. Science has found that the increased amounts of multitasking associated with the internet does hurt our ability to remember information. Scientists found that our short-term memories while multitasking deteriorates over time. Basically, as we get older, we have a harder time with distractions, the Internet will only make it worse. Google seems to both hurt and help our cognition.

Media: google.jpg


  • Location: Menlo Park, California
  • What It Is: Google is founded (1998)
  • Positive Impact: Revolutionized search engines and online advertising allowing people to gain exposure for products and information.
  • Negative Impact: Changed the way human beings recall information.
  • Media:google-hummingbird.jpg

Further Reading:The Atlantic's Article Wiki Link Mashable Article Scientific American Debate

Social Impacts of Internet Usage

Internet Community

  • Location: San Francisco, California
  • What It Is: Reddit founded June 2005
  • Positive impact: Brought internet users together, while spreading information and allowing social interaction.
  • Media:reddit.jpg

  • Location: Cardiff, Wales
  • What It Is: Wikipedia's first newspaper write up (2001)

Positive Impact: Helped spread information allowing people to use the internet for more and more.

  • Media:wikipedia-logo.jpg

World of Warcraft
  • Location: Beijing, China
  • What It Is: Internet Gaming Addiction
  • Negative Impact: Internet addiction can be lethal; two gaming fanatics of World of Warcraft (WoW) die after binge playing.
  • Media:

Further Reading: Depression associated with internet use Mental Health Sociology of the internet Social Impact of Internet Use Life of networked teens The Internet and Social Life Life and the Internet WoW Players Die

Internet Activism

Internet Activism can refer to any use of the Internet to promote a political agenda. Typically, politicians and political activists will use social media websites such as Facebook and Twitter to spread their message. The main advantage of this style of campaigning is the ability to quickly reach many voters; making this method more efficient than other styles of campaigning. Some critics, however, argue that this style of campaigning focuses too much on anecdotes, which have limited usefulness when forming political opinions.



  • London, England
  • WikiLeaks is a website where users are able to post political leaks anonymously. Many of these leaks are war related. For example, WikiLeaks has several records from the Iraq War, including 109,032 deaths. Its creator, Julian Assange, faced extradition from Sweden due to sexual offences. He was granted political asylum from Ecuador, and currently resides in the Embassy of Ecuador, in London.
  • WikiLeaks has received backlash from claims that the information posted on their website can be dangerous. In spite of this, Wikileaks has cited studies where no hard evidence was found that its information endangered lives.




  • Tampa Bay, Florida
  • Operated by the Tampa Bay Times, PolitiFact measures the truthfulness of political statements and rumors. The website uses a system to rate the severity of each lie, with True being the lowest rating and Pants on Fire being the highest rating. The website also includes the annual "Lie of the Year" award, where it chooses the biggest political lie each year. In addition to this, the website contains and "Obameter", keeping track of how many promises U.S. President Barack Obama has kept.
  • PolitiFact has received criticism from politicians and the general public. The criticisms are generally directed towards statements labeled lies, particularly their "Lie of the Year" awards. For example, the 2011 winner was the Democrats' claim that "Republicans voted to end Medicare". While it is true that Republicans were not actually voting to end Medicare, they were planning to make drastic changes. Critics argued that the changes were so drastic that it was more or less an end to Medicare.



Net Neutrality

  • Washington, D.C.
  • Net neutrality is the concept that all online data must be treated equally. Currently, the U.S. Government does not guarantee net neutrality, although many think this should change. One common argument is that net neutrality would allow smaller, web based buisinesses to compete on equal footing, without having to pay extra for higher speeds. On Feburary 19, 2014, the FCC ruled that they would allow ISPs to "build special lanes" for certain websites, opposing net neutrality.
  • There has been much backlash over the FCC's ruling. Most notably, HBO host John Oliver called on Internet commenters to complain on the FCC's commenting system. The FCC servers later crashed due to the high number of comments. It is noteworthy, however, that there is no confirmation that Oliver, either directly or indirectly, caused this crash.



  • Washington, D.C.
  • The Stop Online Piracy Act (House of Representatives) and Protect Intellectual Properties Act (Senate) were designed to shut down websites that hosted illegal content. The laws would require ISPs to block access to such websites. The bills have been postponed indefinitely.
  • The Internet community reacted very negatively, starting petitions to end the bills. Many argued that they would lead to the shutdown of legitimate websites, such as YouTube, if users posted copyrighted material.





University of Mary Washington Domain of Ones Own

Fredericksburg, VA

The Domain of Ones Own Project was piloted in 2012 and was funded as a new initiative in Fall 2014. The project allows UMW students "to register their own domain name and associate it with a space on the UMW-managed Web server." "In that Web space, users will have the opportunity and flexibility to design and create spaces of almost unlimited possibilities."

The Domain of Ones Own Project allows students to understand and engage the deeper possibilities the internet has to offer. This is an innovative project that impacts education because it offers a new tool for students to expand their capabilities. It also allows students to create a space for themselves on the internet which everyone is a part of whether they wish to be or not. By understanding how the technology works students can choose whether to have a greater presence on the internet or not. That aspect of the project has implications that expand far outside the realm of education.

For Further Reading: https://umwdomains.com/details/

Jim Groom TEDx - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHLZFWGou_M (Media?)

Learning Management System (LMS)

Chicago, IL

Currently the term Learning Management System is used to describe a number of different educational computer applications. Originally LMS was used to describe the management system portion of the PLATO k-12 learning System. It was first introduced at the University of Illinois and could only support a single classroom of users.

Learning Management System's impact on education has been enormous, because it has opened the possibilities of who can participate in a class, how the content can be displayed and how educators can organize their classroom. PLATO continued to evolve with new technologies and was what led to today's electronic communities used for education. Canvas and Blackboard are two of the most widely used Learning Management Systems today. They allow students to complete assignments and access tools online. They also allow educators to provide learning resources for students and securely transfer information, such as grades, to students.

Media: http://www.ucop.edu/lms/lms.html

For Further Reading: http://www.answers.com/topic/plato-learning-inc


Informal Education on the Internet

Melbourne, Australia

Personal Learning Network: A Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of people interacting with and deriving knowledge from a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection. Personal Learning Networks have become a platform for educators to share resources and experiences to help build the best curriculum possible to teach their students.

Youtube.com: Youtube was founded in 2005 and the company is described as a distribution platform for originally-created videos. This means and if someone has created a video to do something anyone can learn how to do it.

Informal education that is available on the internet impacts education because not everything someone learns is in a classroom and the internet creates greater access to new information. PLNs allow people to create a connection and share ideas, similar to a friendship, or a relationship a person might have with a co-worker. Youtube allows people to learn anything they wish as long as someone has created a video to explain it. This can be anything from installing a sink to biology.

Media: Education Leadership TEDx by Will Richardson: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ekcWQxgk3k

This informal learning For Further Reading: http://educationaltechnologyguy.blogspot.com/2009/11/creating-personal-learning-network-pln.html


"Learning Networks: A Field Guide to Teaching and Learning Online" By: Linda Marie Harasim


Community Memory

Berkeley, CA

Community Memory was the first public computerized bulletin board system. Established in 1973 in Berkeley, California in a record store. It used an SDS 940 timesharing system in San Francisco connected via a 110 baud link to a teleprinter at a record store in Berkeley to let users enter and retrieve messages. Individuals could place messages in the computer and then look through the memory for a specific notice which created a database that was accessible through public computer terminals. It was then used as a general communications medium that could be used for art, literature, journalism, commerce and social chatter.

The Community Memory helped connect people who were a part of the Whole Earth Movement (The WELL) which is one of the oldest virtual communities. Even though The WELL had its own agenda, the technology of having a digital database that was searchable by keywords that were attached to messages spread throughout many groups of people, including educators, and affected the way that they shared information. This was an early realization of information databases that can be used to bring information to students.

Media: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_Memory#mediaviewer/File:Community_memory_terminal.jpg

For Further Reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_Memory


Massive Online Open Coarse (MOOC)

Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia (Firth MOOC in Malaysia offered by Taylor's University in March 2013 titled "Entrepreneurship".)

MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Courses. Although there has been access to free online courses on the Internet for years, the quality and quantity of courses has changed. Access to free courses has allowed students to obtain a level of education that many only could dream of in the past. This has changed the face of education. In The New York Times article Instruction for Masses Knocked Down Campus Walls, author Tamar Lewin stated, “in the past few months hundreds of thousands of motivated students around the world who lack access to elite universities have been embracing them as a path toward sophisticated skills and high-paying jobs, without paying tuition or collecting a college degree.” (www.bdpa-detroit.org)

The introduction of MOOCs has had a substantial impact on education, especially higher education, because of the wide access it provides. Anyone can take the course and use the information. This is especially important for those who do not have the resources to attend the courses traditionally. MOOCs are thriving in places like Asia (see article below), because "no Asian country has the resources needed to meet increasing demand for degrees." MOOCs allow these citizens to obtain this knowledge where their lack of resources would have made it impossible previously.

Media: What is a MOOC? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massive_open_online_course

For Further Reading: http://www.bdpa-detroit.org/portal/index.php/comittees/high-school-computer-competition-hscc/29-education/57-moocs-top-10-sites-for-free-education-with-elite-universities.html



Open Course Ware

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Open Course Ware is a free and public digital publication of high quality educational materials organized as courses. It really took off once MIT offered Open Course Ware in 2002. In the United Arab Emirates, a discussion, led by Dr. Linzi j. Kemp, American University of Sharjah, has begun sharing teaching and learning materials (‘open course ware’) through a community of educators and practitioners. There is growing availability of high quality and free open access materials shared between universities e.g. MIT (USA). They are also exposed to an example of resource sharing through ‘The Open University (UK), OpenLearn’ platform. Kemp (2013) proposes that teaching and learning will be enhanced when across institutions of higher education, we work together to bring our shared knowledge into classrooms.

The impact of Open Course Ware is that it ensures teaching and learning is available and beneficial for a wider community

Media: American_University_of_Sharjah_%28emblem%29.png

For Further Reading: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm